Mahadevan NR, Knelson EH, Wolff JO, Vajdi A, Saigi M, Campisi M, Hong D, Thai TC, Piel B, Han S, Reinhold BB, Duke-Cohan JS, Poitras MJ, Taus LJ, Lizotte PH, Portell A, Quadros V, Santucci AD, Kitajima S, Akitsu A, Reardon B, Gokhale PC, Paweletz CP, Awad MM, Van Allen EM, Hong F,
Sholl LM, Tolstorukov MY, Pfaff K, Jänne PA, Rodig S, Reinherz EL, Oser MG, Barbie DA
Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is highly mutated, yet durable response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is rare. SCLC also exhibits cellular plasticity, which could influence its immunobiology. Here we discover that a distinct subset of SCLC uniquely upregulates MHC I, enriching for durable ICB benefit. In vitro modeling confirms epigenetic recovery of MHC I in SCLC following loss of neuroendocrine differentiation, which tracks with derepression of STING. Transient EZH2 inhibition expands these nonneuroendocrine cells, which display intrinsic innate immune signaling and basally restored antigen presentation. Consistent with these findings, murine nonneuroendocrine SCLC tumors are rejected in a syngeneic model, with clonal expansion of immunodominant effector CD8 T cells. Therapeutically, EZH2 inhibition followed by STING agonism enhances T-cell recognition and rejection of SCLC in mice. Together, these data identify MHC I as a novel biomarker of SCLC immune responsiveness and suggest novel immunotherapeutic approaches to co-opt SCLC's intrinsic immunogenicity. SIGNIFICANCE: SCLC is poorly immunogenic, displaying modest ICB responsiveness with rare durable activity. In profiling its plasticity, we uncover intrinsically immunogenic MHC Ihi subpopulations of nonneuroendocrine SCLC associated with durable ICB benefit. We also find that combined EZH2 inhibition and STING agonism uncovers this cell state, priming cells for immune rejection.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1861.